Sachin Tendulkar scored the first double century in one-day international history as India claimed a series-clinching, 153-win against South Africa in Gwalior.
Tendulkar batted throughout India's innings of 401-3 to finish 200 not out, surpassing the previous individual record score in the 50-over format of 194 jointly held by Pakistan's Saeed Anwar and Zimbabwean Charles Coventry.
Despite AB de Villiers' 114 not out, South Africa were dismissed in reply for 248 in 42.5 overs. The tourists now trail 2-0 in the three-match series.
Tendulkar achieved the new landmark from the third ball of the 46th over, clipping his 140th delivery faced for a couple into the leg-side from the bowling of Wayne Parnell.
And he went on to reach 200 in the final over of the innings, bowled by Charl Langeveldt (0-70), with a scrambled single to point.
The 36-year-old, whose previous one-day best was the unbeaten 186 he made against New Zealand in Hyderabad in 1999, hit 25 fours and three sixes during his 147-ball innings.
And, aided by a late cameo from skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni, India's final total was the ninth highest ever in one-day internationals.
Dhoni slammed a brutal 68 from 35 balls during a 101-run stand for the fourth wicket with Tendulkar in the closing overs.
Dinesh Karthik (79) and Yusuf Pathan (36) had earlier provided good support during stands worth 194 and 81 for the second and third wickets respectively.
The only Indian to miss out on the run feast was Tendulkar's opening partner Virender Sehwag, who was caught at third-man off Parnell (2-95) for just nine after Dhoni had won the toss and opted to bat first on a placid surface.
It was very much the Tendulkar show right from the opening over, starting with boundaries on either side of the wicket off Parnell and thereafter featuring a dazzling array of cuts, pulls and drives.
He reached his 50 off only 37 balls with his ninth boundary and struck five more en route to his 46th one-day hundred, raised off a mere 90 deliveries.
Karthik, who also began his innings with a couple of boundaries, played the supporting role nicely, eventually reaching his fourth one-day half-century.
The second-wicket pair put South Africa's attack to the sword until Parnell struck again, luring Karthik into a pull which the batsman mistimed and presented Herschelle Gibbs at midwicket with a straightforward catch.
Pathan then joined Tendulkar and the two raised 81 for the third wicket off only 47 deliveries, Pathan playing his part with four boundaries and two sixes before his stay was ended by left-arm spinner Roelof van de Merwe (1-62), whose 6.2 economy rate was the best among the Proteas' bowling attack.
His dismissal was merely a blip, however, as Tendulkar and Dhoni continued to find the boundary at will to take India beyond 400.
De Villiers ton
Faced with such a mammoth target, South Africa were never in the hunt after losing six wickets inside the first 15 overs.
Opener Hashim Amla did get the run chase off to a flyer with 34 off 22 balls before being one of two early victims for Shanthakumaran Sreesanth (3-49).
When JP Duminy was trapped lbw by Pathan (2-37) for a first-ball duck, South Africa had slumped to 103-6 and the match looked set for an early finish.
But de Villiers found some support in the lower order as the runs continued to flow.
Parnell contributed 18 to an eighth-wicket stand of 77 before de Villiers completed his fifth one-day international hundred from 85 balls.
He was left unbeaten on 114 from 101 deliveries, including 13 fours a two sixes, when last man Charl Langeveldt (12) holed out off Ravindra Jadeja (2-41) to bring an end to proceedings.
The series concludes in Ahmedabad on Saturday.