Essex were bowled out for 20, the lowest total in their first-class history, as Lancashire claimed victory by an innings and 105 runs with a day to spare at Chelmsford.
Already in arrears of 125 after Lancashire posted a first-innings 398, six Essex batsmen made ducks in a total which was smaller than their previous worst of 30 against Yorkshire in 1901.
It was the lowest total in a County Championship fixture since Surrey were 14 all out against Essex in 1983.
Veteran seamer Glen Chapple took 5-9 from 7.2 overs and Kyle Hogg posted 4-11, with Essex captain James Foster run out.
Lancashire's new-ball pair immediately found their rhythm, line and length and had the home side in deep trouble from the start as seven wickets fell in the first 50 deliveries.
Hogg burst through the top order with four of the first five wickets to enjoy figures of 4-3 at that point as the first three wickets fell with the total on five.
Tom Westley got off the mark with a boundary but then chipped to cover before New Zealand international Hamish Rutherford drove Hogg to Chapple at mid-off for a duck.
Owais Shah (0) and Ben Foakes (0) were pinned in front of their stumps by Hogg either side of the downfall of Ryan ten Doeschate (1) which gave Chapple his first wicket.
With the scoreboard showing 15-5, Foster was run out for four by Chapple in his follow through when opener Jaik Mickleburgh called for a suicidal run.
It took Lancashire captain Chapple little time to polish off the innings. Graham Napier (0) was leg before, Sajid Mahmood (0) was bowled and then Mickleburgh, who had watched the carnage for just over an hour and faced 38 balls, walked across the line and was lbw for 10.
Reece Topley (0) was pinned in front of his stumps to Chapple's next delivery and that concluded an innings that had lasted just 68 minutes.
It was the first time that Lancashire had dismissed opposition for less than 22 and that occurred against Glamorgan at Liverpool in 1924.
Lancashire took 23 points from the match and Essex five.