Rory McIlroy shot a five-under-par 67 to beat Tiger Woods by one stroke in their 18-hole head-to-head exhibition match at Jinsha Lake Golf Club.
The top two players in the world went head-to-head in central China in a match dubbed "Duel at Jinsha Lake" and it was the Northern Irishman who prevailed after a fast start.
McIlroy opened with two birdies from his opening three holes and Woods, who carded two bogeys and six birdies in his round of 68, could not overturn the deficit.
"It was a pretty exciting day and the match was pretty close all day," McIlroy said afterwards. "I got off to a good start and had a little bit of advantage for the first few holes but then Tiger birdied a few on the back nine. All I was trying to do was to keep myself ahead and I managed to do that."
Both players had to make long journeys to Zhengzhou, an industrial city in China's Henan province, after competing elsewhere on Sunday.
McIlroy finished second to Peter Hanson in the European Tour's BMW Masters at Shanghai, while Woods tied for fourth in the PGA Tour's CIMB Classic in Malaysia.
The American said: "This certainly was not my usual way I spend Mondays but to have this many people come out and watch us play golf... was something special.
"These events don't happen that often and it was just great to see everyone so excited to see us come here and excited to watch us play."
After a hectic week, both players have opted to skip the forthcoming HSBC Champions event, which starts on Thursday.