Barcelona made it eight straight wins in the Primera Liga, while Real Madrid left it late to beat Levante and there were also wins for Rayo Vallecano and Elche.
Barcelona recovered from the surprise of going behind early on against Real Valladolid to continue their record-breaking start to the Primera Division season with a 4-1 triumph.
Barca fell behind to Javi Guerra's glancing header from a corner but they were behind for just four minutes before Alexis Sanchez drew them level with a thunderous shot.
Xavi put Barca in front in the 52nd minute following a slick move and there were further goals for Sanchez and Neymar as a three-point lead was opened up at the summit.
Cristiano Ronaldo struck another last-gasp winner as Real Madrid snatched a 3-2 victory away to Levante to stay within five points of Barcelona, two behind Atletico.
Papa Baba Diawara put Levante in front in the 57th minute but his goal was quickly cancelled out by Sergio Ramos.
Levante struck in the 86th minute through Nabil El Zhar but Real equalised for a second time thanks to Alvaro Morata before a deflected strike from Ronaldo - whose last-gasp penalty sank Elche last week - sealed another thrilling win.
Jonathan Viera stepped off the substitutes' bench to score a late penalty as Rayo Vallecano beat Real Sociedad 1-0 to double their points tally for the season and climb off the foot of the table.
Both sides squandered chances before Viera was fouled by Claudio Bravo in the 88th minute, and the 23-year-old made no mistake from the spot.
Coro netted twice as Elche overcame Espanyol 2-1 to win at home for the first time this season.
The hosts bossed the first half and deservedly took the lead six minutes before half-time through former Espanyol player Coro, but were pegged back by Thievy Bifouma's equaliser on 65 minutes.
The visitors looked as if they would go on and win the game as they continued to press Manu Herrera's goal, but Coro got his second goal with little more than a quarter of an hour remaining, which was enough to deliver a 2-1 win and all three points.