South Africa have been penalised five runs for ball tampering during the third day of the second Test against Pakistan in Dubai.
As the Proteas pushed for victory late on day three, umpires Ian Gould and Rod Tucker applied the penalty after they deemed the condition of the ball had been changed.
Further sanctions could also be applied after play, with an ICC spokesman confirming that any player reported for ball tampering by the umpires would be subject to a hearing in front of the match referee as a matter of process.
South Africa captain Graeme Smith was called over by the umpires at the end of the 30th over and informed of the decision to enforce the five-run penalty.
Pakistan were 67-3 at that stage, still requiring another 355 runs to avoid an innings defeat.
"As per 42.1 of the ICC playing conditions, the umpires replaced the ball and fined the South Africa team five penalty runs for ball tampering," an ICC spokesperson confirmed.
No South Africa player has yet been charged, but TV replays appeared to show a player rubbing the ball against the zipper on his whites.
Under the ICC regulation the umpires are obligated to report the incident to match referee David Boon, who is expected to call a hearing after play.
Playing regulation 42.1 (e) reads: "Together with the other umpire report the incident to the ICC match referee who shall take action as is appropriate against the player(s) responsible for the conduct under the ICC code of conduct.
"If the ICC match referee is unable to identify the player(s) responsible for such conduct, the captain shall take responsibility and will be subject to such action as is appropriate under the ICC code of conduct."
Altering the condition of the ball is a level two offence under the ICC's code of conduct, which carries a penalty of 50 per cent to 100 per cent of their match fee and/or suspension from one Test or two one-day internationals for a first offence.
Pakistan closed day three on 132-4 in their second innings, still 286 runs away from making South Africa bat again.