Sachin Tendulkar finished the opening day of his farewell Test appearance on 38 not out as India reached 157-2 in reply to West Indies' 182.
Tendulkar, playing in his 200th Test on his home ground in Mumbai, was given a rousing reception by the 32,000 crowd when he came to the crease in the evening session with India on 77-2.
West Indies spinner Shane Shillingford (2-46) had struck twice in three balls to get rid of India openers Shikhar Dhawan (33) and Murali Vijay (43).
Tendulkar blocked out his first two deliveries before getting off the mark in Shillingford's next over with a heave into the leg side for a single.
From there, the man with 51 Test and 49 ODI centuries to his name, expanded his strokeplay, finding the boundary three times in quick succession, the last of which was a flowing cover drive off fast bowler Shannon Gabriel.
And he added three further fours - including a trademark on-drive late in the day - during an unbroken third-wicket stand of 80 with Cheteshwar Pujara (34no).
West Indies, who lost the series opener in Kolkata last week inside three days, had collapsed in the afternoon.
Asked to bat by India captain MS Dohni, opener Kieran Powell led the tourists to a promising 93-2 at lunch.
But left-arm spinner Pragyan Ojha (3-45) removed Powell for 48, the first of eight West Indies wickets to go down in the middle session.
Ojha's spin partner Ravi Ashwin finished 5-40 as West Indies were all out on the stroke of tea.
Vijay and Dhawan took an attacking approach in the early stages of India's reply before Shillingford's double strike brought Tendulkar onto centre stage.