Derbyshire closed day one at Emirates Durham International Cricket Ground on 15-1 after career-best figures from Mark Footitt helped them dismiss their hosts for 253.
Left-arm seamer Footitt finished up with 6-53, including taking three wickets in five deliveries with the second new ball, as Durham collapsed from 222-4.
Keaton Jennings struck a LV= County Championship-best 93, the opener sharing in stands of 70 with Will Smith (43) and then 90 in combination with Phil Mustard.
Footitt claimed both wickets to fall in the opening session of the Division One contest, getting acting Durham captain Mark Stoneman caught at mid-on for three before trapping Scott Borthwick lbw for 22.
Tim Groenewald bowled a good spell in the afternoon to have Will Smith caught at second slip for 43 before then getting Michael Richardson caught behind.
Jennings passed his previous top score of 70 and looked on course to reach three figures until he was adjudged leg before when playing half forward to Wes Durston's off-spin.
Ben Stokes, who had come in at number seven in the order after feeling unwell, managed a five-ball duck as Durham's innings fell away in a hurry.
Footitt removed Gareth Brees, Mustard, who made 52 with eight boundaries, and Cameron Thorp in quick succession. Chris Rushworth was the last man out, bowled for four.
Derbyshire were left to face eight overs but opener Chesney Hughes survived just two balls, Rushworth getting him lbw. Richard Johnson (2 no) and Wayne Madsen (13 no) were unbeaten at stumps.