Teenage off-spinner Ryan Buckley marked his first-class debut with a five-wicket haul as Durham bowled Surrey out for 237 on the opening day of their clash at the Kia Oval.
The hosts looked set for a big total courtesy of half-centuries from Arun Harinath, Steven Davies and Zander de Bruyn, until Buckley changed the course of the innings with figures of 5-86.
Losing their last five wickets for five runs in the space of 33 balls - the last four of them without addition - Surrey stumbled to a modest total before the visitors reached 48-0 at the close.
Electing to bat first first on the pitch used for Monday's YB40 encounter with Hampshire, Surrey lost Rory Burns (1) to the 10th ball of the day.
Jason Roy (17) also fell relatively cheaply but Harinath (53) then proceeded to blunt the attack in combination with Vikram Solanki, who became Buckley's first victim when he fell for 38 in the 25th over.
After Harinath was cleaned up by Callum Thorp (3-29), de Bruyn (57) and Davies (52) kept the scoreboard ticking along nicely with a fifth-wicket stand of 84.
But Davies' departure triggered a dramatic lower-order collapse, with 19-year-old Buckley ending his 30.2 over stint by taking three wickets in five balls without conceding a run.
Durham openers Mark Stoneman (33 not out) and Will Smith (12no) then saw out 15 overs before the close.