An unbeaten stand of 257 between Phil Jaques and Kane Williamson helped Yorkshire fight back after they were made to follow-on by Durham on day three at Scarborough.
Having been bowled out for 274 first time around in reply to the visitors total of 573, the reigning Division One leaders responded by reaching 276-1 by the close.
Although they still trail by 23 runs, the efforts of Jaques and Williamson - who came together after Adam Lyth was trapped lbw by Chris Rushworth for 10 - have given Yorkshire real hope of avoiding defeat against their closest rivals.
Opener Jaques was 151 not out off 192 balls with 23 fours and two sixes while New Zealander Williamson had 90 to his name, his unbeaten knock containing 13 fours.
The White Rose county had got themselves into deep trouble during a morning session in which they lost their last seven first-innings wickets for 63 runs, collapsing from their overnight 211-3 to 274 all out.
Williamson and Jonny Bairstow experienced few early difficulties as they resumed their unbroken third wicket stand of 75, the latter moving to 50 from 89 deliveries with nine fours.
However the introduction of Ben Stokes into the attack changed the game, the all-rounder trapping Williamson lbw with a yorker for 84 before Gary Ballance was dramatically run out.
Another shock quickly followed as leg-spinner Scott Borthwick dismissed Bairstow for 82 with his 10th delivery of the day.
The lower order failed to put up much of a fight; Liam Plunkett had his leg bail trimmed by Mark Wood and the paceman's next ball nipped back fiercely and shattered Steven Patterson's stumps.
The innings was closed by Stokes when he had Ryan Sidebottom caught behind for five, giving Durham skipper Paul Collingwood the chance to ask the hosts to have another go.