Phillip Hughes has been handed the chance to fill the void left by Ricky Ponting for the first Test against Sri Lanka, beginning next Friday in Hobart.
Hughes has not played for Australia for a year, with his last Test appearance coming against New Zealand.
However the 24-year-old will replace Ponting after the former captain retired from international cricket - with Hughes getting the nod over Alex Doolan, Usman Khawaja and Rob Quiney.
Peter Siddle and Ben Hilfenhaus also return to the squad at the expense of injured duo John Hastings and Josh Hazlewood.
"Phillip is an improved player and his recent and overall career statistics present a compelling case," national selection panel chairman John Inverarity said.
"The NSP holds the view that he, having just turned 24, is a very significant part of the future. He has received this call-up, his third, as it was considered to be the right time and circumstances for him to re-establish himself."
Hughes has scored 524 first-class runs this summer at an average of 47.63 - however he has managed 1,072 runs in 17 Tests.
Australia: Michael Clarke (c), Shane Watson (vc), Ed Cowan, Ben Hilfenhaus, Phillip Hughes, Mike Hussey, Mitchell Johnson, Nathan Lyon, Peter Siddle, Mitchell Starc, Matthew Wade (w), David Warner.
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