Malik, 24, left Trent Bridge in 2004 but has been brought back on-loan as Nottinghamshire are currently in the midst of an injury crisis.
Director of cricket Mike Newell moved for Malik after another on-loan player, Lancashire's Kyle Hogg, suffered an ankle injury.
Newell told the county's official website: "With five seamers already out injured, we simply didn't have any other fast bowling options from within the club to turn to.
"As soon as Kyle failed a fitness test this morning we were on the phone to a few contacts and when we knew that Nadeem was available, it was an easy decision to make.
"He is familiar with the set-up here and should be able to settle in immediately."
Malik goes straight into the starting XI for the Division Two match against leaders Somerset.