Vernon Philander had to pull out of the South Africa team for the second Test with Australia in Adelaide because of a back injury.
The injury to Philander, second in the ICC bowling rankings, is a major loss for South Africa, who have already lost all-rounder JP Duminy for the series to an Achilles injury.
Rory Kleinveldt, who made his debut in the drawn first test in Brisbane, had been dropped from the team with leg-spinner Imran Tahir replacing him in the line-up - but the paceman will now keep his place.
"Vernon must have slept very badly last night and woke up with a bad back and he's out of the test match so Rory Kleinveldt will come in for him," South Africa skipper Graeme Smith said.
Faf du Plessis makes his debut in the side in place of Duminy whilst Tahir earns a recall after sitting out the Brisbane draw.
"Imran's played a few Test matches now and has played reasonably well and hopefully that will get better and better as time goes on," Smith said.
Australia named an unchanged line-up on Wednesday and won the toss on a wicket that traditionally offers little to the bowlers over the first two to three days.
Australia: Michael Clarke (capt), Ed Cowan, David Warner, Rob Quiney, Ricky Ponting, Mike Hussey, Matt Wade, James Pattinson, Peter Siddle, Ben Hilfenhaus, Nathan Lyon.
South Africa: Graeme Smith (capt), Alviro Petersen, Hashim Amla, Jacques Kallis, AB de Villiers, Jacques Rudolph, Faf du Plessis, Rory Kleinveldt, Dale Steyn, Imran Tahir, Morne Morkel.